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Links: Piroplasma & other "ringforms"
Role of T cells and cytokines in fatal and resolving experimental babesiosis ...
Role of T cells and cytokines in fatal and resolving experimental babesiosis: protection in TNFRp55-/- mice infected with the human Babesia WA1 parasite.
Hemmer RM et al. J Parasitol 2000 Aug;86(4):736-42.
We characterized the cytokine response and T-cell requirements of mice infected with the intraerythrocytic parasites Babesia microti and WA1. WA1 infections were fatal, whereas B. microti infections were resolved. We measured production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-4 by splenic CD4+, CD8+, and gammadelta+ T cells using flow cytometry. WA1 inoculation stimulated TNF-alpha production, whereas resolving B. microti infections were characterized by increased IL-10 and IL-4. The role of TNF-alpha in WA1 infections was further investigated by inoculating TNFRp55-/- mice with a lethal dose of WA1. A survival rate of 90% in the TNFRp55-/- mice indicated that a disruption in the TNF-alpha pathway abrogated the pathologic mechanism of WA1. Inoculation of WA1 into CD4-/- and CD8-/- mice resulted in survival rates of 60% and 78%, respectively, whereas WA1 infection in gammadelta-/- and control mice was fatal. These results suggest that CD8+ T cells may contribute to the WA1-associated disease. Babesia-infected CD4-/- mice experienced a longer duration of parasitemia, indicating that CD4+ T cells participate in parasite elimination. These studies demonstrate differences in immune responses during fatal or resolving Babesia infections, and they identify TNF-alpha as an important mediator of the WA1-associated pathogenesis.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 621
Roles of TNF in malaria and other parasitic infections
Clark IA, Cowden WB. Immunol Ser. 1992;56:365-407.
It is appropriate here to show deference to earlier malariologists, back to the nineteenth century, whose observations and reasoning were evidently accurate when they attributed malarial illness and pathology (including cerebral malaria) to a malarial toxin (reviewed by Clark and Tomlinson, 1949). The only additional insight required of present-day workers has been to see the malaria parasite not as a source of a direct toxin, but of molecules, harmless in themselves, that can act as a trigger for toxic products of host origin. As a final twist, low concentrations of these host-derived "toxins" are not only harmless, but necessary for normal biological functions. They are deleterious only when overproduced.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 718
Septic shock due to babesiosis
Dacey MJ et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Sep 1;33(5):E37-E38.
We present the case of a 69-year-old man with an unremarkable past medical history and an intact spleen who developed shock and renal failure due to babesiosis. Despite hemodynamic parameters showing severe distributive shock with hyperdynamic cardiac function, the patient recovered fully after treatment with quinine sulfate and clindamycin.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 523
Roles of CD4(+) T cells and gamma interferon in protective immunity against Babesia microti ...
Roles of CD4(+) T cells and gamma interferon in protective immunity against Babesia microti infection in mice
Igarashi I et al. Infect Immun 1999 Aug;67(8):4143-8
PDF
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 816
Roles of the Maltese cross form in the development of parasitemia .. Babesia ...
Roles of the Maltese cross form in the development of parasitemia and protection against Babesia microti infection in mice
Yokoyama N et al. Infect Immun. 2003 Jan;71(1):411-7.
PDF
These findings indicate that the Maltese cross form plays important roles in both the development of parasitemia and the protective response against the infection.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 791
Use of the Quantitative Buffy Coat system for detection of .. babesiosis ...
Use of the Quantitative Buffy Coat system for detection of parasitemia in patients with babesiosis
Mattia AR, Waldron MA, Sierra LS. J Clin Microbiol 1993 Oct;31(10):2816-8.
Quantitative Buffy Coat analysis and blood smears were performed on a total of 47 blood samples. The technique showed 100% correlation with the blood smears in 9 samples containing babesia and 10 samples containing malaria, with some differential features distinguishing the two infections. Quantitative Buffy Coat analysis provides a simple and rapid method for the detection of parasitemia in cases of babesiosis.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 638
Seroprevalence of Babesia infections in humans exposed to ticks ...
Seroprevalence of Babesia infections in humans exposed to ticks in midwestern Germany
Hunfeld KP et al. Clin Microbiol 2002 Jul;40(7):2431-6. "Rhein-Main area..the overall seroprevalences for B. microti and B. divergens were 5.4% (25 of 467) and 3.6% (17 of 467), respectively. The results .. provide evidence for concurrent infections with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia species in humans exposed to ticks in midwestern Germany. They also suggest that infections with Babesia species in the German human population are more frequent than believed previously.. PDF
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 685
Severe babesiosis in Long Island: review of 34 cases and their complications

Hatcher JC et al. Clin Infect Dis 2001 Apr 15;32(8):1117-25.
Three patients died. PDF
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 719
Diagnosis of tick-borne relapsing fever by the quantitative buffy coat fluorescence method
Short report: Diagnosis of tick-borne relapsing fever by the quantitative buffy coat fluorescence method
Chatel G et al. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999 May;60(5):738-9.
The quantitative buffy coat (QBC) parasite detection method is a sensitive and specific tool for the diagnosis of malaria parasites. It is also useful for the diagnoses of other hemoparasites, including Trypanosoma, Babesia, and Leptospira. We report a case of relapsing fever [borrelia] diagnosed by this technique in a short-term traveler from Senegal. The diagnosis was confirmed by the standard Giemsa hemoscopy and by the identification of significant titers of antibodies to Borrelia spp. of tick-borne relapsing fevers by specific immunofluorescence and Western blot tests. The QBC technique seems to be useful in the diagnosis of tick-borne relapsing fever ...
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 615
Southern extension of the range of human babesiosis in the eastern United States
Eskow ES et al. J Clin Microbiol. 1999 Jun;37(6):2051-2.
three residents of New Jersey who were suspected of local acquisition of Babesia microti infection. ..All three residents experienced symptoms suggestive of acute babesiosis. The sera of each of the patients reacted against babesial antigen at a titer fourfold or higher in sequentially collected blood samples. PCR-amplifiable DNA, characteristic of B. microti, was detected in their blood. PDF
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 678
Stimulation of nitric oxide production in macrophages by Babesia bovis
Stich RW. Infect Immun 1998 Sep;66(9):4130-6.
These results show that B. bovis merozoites and antigen-stimulated B. bovis-immune T cells can induce the production of NO, a molecule implicated in both protection and pathologic changes associated with hemoprotozoan parasite infections. PDF
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 686
Survey of tick-borne diseases in dogs infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus .. Japan
Survey of tick-borne diseases in dogs infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus at a kennel in Okayama Prefecture, Japan
Inokuma H et al. J Vet Med Sci. 1998 Jun;60(6):761-3.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 669
The impact of babesiosis on transfusion medicine
Pantanowitz L et al. Transfus Med Rev. 2002 Apr;16(2):131-43.
Despite the development of novel and improved diagnostic tests, these tests are not readily available for the mass screening of blood donors. Improved strategies to assess and prevent transfusion-associated babesiosis are required. Current measures cannot be relied on to identify infected donors with a high degree of sensitivity or to protect susceptible recipients from this parasite.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 594
The intracellular parasite Theileria parva protects infected T cells from apoptosis
Heussler VT et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Jun 22;96(13):7312-7. PDF
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 970
The isolation and characterization of human and bovine strains of Babesia divergens .. Scotland.
The isolation and characterization of human and bovine strains of Babesia divergens from Drumnadrochit, Scotland.
Lewis D, Purnell RE, Shaw SR. Parasitology. 1980 Aug;81(1):145-55.
Strains of Babesia divergens of human and bovine origin were isolated from the same locality in Scotland.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 718
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