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Links: Piroplasma & other "ringforms"
Delayed onset adult respiratory distress syndrome in babesiosis
Horowitz ML et al. Chest. 1994 Oct;106(4):1299-301.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 832
Diagnostic clinical parasitology: IV. Identification of the blood parasites?
Garcia LS, Voge M. Am J Med Technol. 1981 Jan;47(1):21-7. "contains information on the recovery and identification of human blood parasites. The organisms covered include those that cause the diseases malaria, babesiosis, leishmaniasis, and trypanosomiasis. Some of the filarial worms, which can be considered "blood parasites," have been discussed in the third article in the series, "Identification of the Helminths."
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 948
Differential effects of infection with a Babesia-like piroplasm, WA1, in inbred mice
Moro MH et al. Infect Immun 1998 Feb;66(2):492-8. PDF
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 759
Disease-specific diagnosis of coinfecting tickborne zoonoses: babesiosis, HGE & LB
Disease-specific diagnosis of coinfecting tickborne zoonoses: babesiosis, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and Lyme disease.
Krause PJ et al. Clin Infect Dis 2002 May 1;34(9):1184-91.
"The combination of fever, chills, and headache in patients with Lyme disease suggests that these patients are concurrently infected with the agents of babesiosis, HGE, or both. Concurrent infection tends to increase the diversity and duration of symptoms attributed to Lyme disease. "
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 610
Do babesiosis and malaria share a common disease process?
Clark IA, Jacobson LS. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1998 Jun;92(4):483-8.
"Headache, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, myalgia, altered mental status, disseminated intravascular coagulation, anaemia with dyserythropoiesis, hypotension, respiratory distress, and renal insufficiency are common to both diseases. " ... "Malarial disease pathogenesis is now generally associated with excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines , such as tumour necrosis factor. While this concept has not yet been examined in babesiosis, indirect evidence arises from noting the parasite density at which illness occurs in primary infections caused by either organism."
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 837
Endemic babesiosis in another eastern state: New Jersey
Herwaldt BL et al. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003 Feb;9(2):184-8.
"We describe a case of babesiosis acquired in New Jersey in 1999 in an otherwise healthy 53-year-old woman who developed life-threatening disease. We also provide composite data on 40 cases of babesiosis acquired from 1993 through 2001 in New Jersey."
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 653
Endothelial cell changes are associated with pulmonary edema and RDS .. WA1 human Babesia ...
Endothelial cell changes are associated with pulmonary edema and RDS in mice infected with WA1 human Babesia parasite.
Hemmer RM et al. J Parasitol. 1999 Jun;85(3):479-89. "WA1-infected mice developed dyspnea and moderate parasitemias, after which death occurred. ..WA1-infected mice were thrombocytopenic but not anemic. Hemograms for B. microti-infected mice were similar to controls. Postmortem examination of WA1-infected mice revealed prominent lesions in the lungs, including pulmonary edema and intravascular margination of leukocytes. No pulmonary changes were detected in B. microti-infected mice. Blood gas measurements of WA1-infected mice showed reduced oxygen saturation and pH, and increased carbonic acid compared to controls, indicating hypoxia and respiratory acidosis. Ultrastructure studies of WA1-infected lungs showed hypertrophied endothelial cells containing transcellular channels associated with protein-rich intra-alveolar fluid. Endothelial cell activation was demonstrated by an upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the lungs of WA1-infected mice. The results suggest that recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lungs in WA1-infected mice induces endothelial cell alterations, leading to pulmonary edema and acute respiratory failure."
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 798
Entomologic and serologic evidence of zoonotic transmission of Babesia microti, eastern Switzerland
Entomologic and serologic evidence of zoonotic transmission of Babesia microti, eastern Switzerland.
Foppa IM et al. Emerg Infect Dis 2002 Jul;8(7):722-6.
"More ticks carried babesial infection in the lower portion of the rectangular 0.7-ha grid than in the upper (11% vs. 0.8%) ... Serum from 1.5% of the 396 human residents of the region reacted to B. microti antigen (>1:64).."
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 617
Evaluation of selected antiprotozoal drugs in the Babesia microti-hamster model
Marley SE et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997 Jan;41(1):91-4.
"The presently used therapy for Babesia microti infections, a combination of quinine and clindamycin, does not always result in parasitologic cures. ..Several well-recognized antimalarial drugs, such as mefloquine, halofantrine, artesunate, and artelenic acid, exhibited little or no effect on parasitemia. ..
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 771
Experimental Babesia microti infections .. recurrent parasitemia ...
Experimental Babesia microti infections in Macaca mulatta: recurrent parasitemia before and after splenectomy.
Ruebush TK 2nd et al. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1981 Mar;30(2):304-7.
"To learn more about the course of Babesia microti infections in primates, six Macaca mulatta monkeys with blood-induced B. microti infections were followed for 270 days with regular thick blood smears. Three of the monkeys experienced from 1--3 recurrences of parasitemia defined here as greater than or equal to 200 organisms/mm3 blood. Following splenectomy on day 297, parasitemia recurred in all animals, reaching levels of 1.9 x 10(5) to 2.7 x 10(6) organisms/mm3, and was associated with a moderately severe hemolytic anemia. These findings suggest that similar recurrences of parasitemia may occur in human cases, and that splenectomy may present a risk to persons with a past history of B. microti infection."
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 820
Experimental Babesia microti infections in non-splenectomized Macaca mulatta
Ruebush TK 2nd et al. J Parasitol. 1979 Feb;65(1):144-6.
"Parasitemia persisted for at least 90 days in all animals and in one, organisms were still present 559 days after inoculation."
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 725
Failure of chloroquine in human babesiosis (Babesia microti) ...
Failure of chloroquine in human babesiosis (Babesia microti): case report and chemotherapeutic trials in hamsters.
Miller LH et al. Ann Intern Med 1978 Feb;88(2):200-2.
"Chloroquine, metronidazole, primaquine, and sulfadiazine in parasitemia combination with pyrimethamine had no effect on the course of parasitemia. Minocycline (500 mg/kg) and tetracycline (500 mg/kg per day) reduced parasitemia on Day 8 of treatment, and the parasitemia eventually fell to below 0.01%. But all minocycline-treated animals and eight of 10 tetracyclinetreated animals died during or shortly after treatment when the parasitemia was low or subpatent. In the two surviving hamsters, parasitemia recurred. Tetracycline at 50 mg/kg caused no mortality but had no antiparasitic activity. Pentamidine isethionate and 4,4'-diazoaminobenzamidine (Ganaseg @, Berenil @) reduced parasitemia within 3 days and suppressed it throughout therapy (Figure 1). However, in both instances after the drugs were withdrawn, parasitemia again rose to high levels of 25% to 55%. Pentamidine (50 mg/kg) resulted in 100% mortality of animals; reactions at the injection site were common with both doses used."
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 777
Fatal pancarditis in a patient with coexistent Lyme disease and babesiosis. ...
Fatal pancarditis in a patient with coexistent Lyme disease and babesiosis. Demonstration of spirochetes in the myocardium.
Marcus LC et al. Ann Intern Med 1985 Sep; 103(3): 374-6.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=4040723&dopt=Abstract
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 804
First documented case of human babesiosis in Sweden
Uhnoo I et al. Scand J Infect Dis. 1992;24(4):541-7.
A 34-year-old splenectomized man presented with fever, myalgia and dysuria. His condition rapidly deteriorated, he became anuric and developed severe haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and fibrinolysis. Peripheral blood smears revealed intra-erythrocytic parasites consistent with Babesia divergens in 40% of the erythrocytes. The diagnosis was confirmed by gerbil inoculation and by a significant rise in antibody titer. Blood exchange transfusion reduced the number of babesia infected erythrocytes to 1%. Parenteral therapy with a combination of quinine and clindamycin eradicated parasitaemia after 10 days of treatment and the patient rapidly improved. Renal failure necessitated haemodialysis for one month, whereafter the patient made a full recovery. Human babesiosis is a rare disease, but with a potential fatal outcome and should be considered as a diagnostic alternative in splenectomized and otherwise immunocompromised individuals with severe febrile illnesses.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 802
Fulminant babesiosis treated with clindamycin, quinine, and whole-blood exchange transfusion
Dorman SE et al. Transfusion. 2000 Mar;40(3):375-80.
A previously healthy, 58-year-old man was infected by Babesia microti, presumably through a tick bite. He developed fulminant disease characterized by severe hemolytic anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure, and respiratory failure. There was no history of splenectomy or immunodeficiency.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 791
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