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Links: Piroplasma & other "ringforms"
Up-regulation of TNF alpha and interferon-gamma expression ...human Babesia isolate WA1
Up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma expression in the spleen and lungs of mice infected with the human Babesia isolate WA1
Hemmer RM et al. Parasitol Res. 2000 Feb;86(2):121-8.
WA1 infections were fatal, whereas B. microti infections were resolved. We propose that the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) contribute to the WA1-associated disease.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 920
The malaria-infected red blood cell: structural and functional changes
Cooke BM, Mohandas N, Coppel RL. Adv Parasitol. 2001;50:1-86.
The red blood cell undergoes striking morphological alterations and its rheological properties are considerably altered, manifesting as red blood cells with increased membrane rigidity, reduced deformability and increased adhesiveness for a number of other cells including the vascular endothelium. Elucidation of the structural changes in the red blood cell induced by parasite invasion and maturation and an understanding of the accompanying functional alterations have the ability to considerably extend our knowledge of structure-function relationships in the normal red blood cell.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 1052
Theobald Smith-the discoverer of ticks as vectors of disease [Babesia]
Assadian O, Stanek G. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002 Jul 31;114(13-14):479-81.
The cause of Texas fever in cattle, which is characterised by lysis of erythrocytes leading to anaemia, icterus, haemoglobinuria, and death, remained unsolved for many decades and assorted theories were proposed as an explanation for a disease being transmitted by apparently healthy animals. From 1889 to 1893, Theobald Smith and Frederick L. Kilbourne could demonstrate in elegantly conducted experiments how the disease was spread from cattle to cattle by ticks serving as the vector of transmission. Furthermore, they were able to identify the pathogen of Texas fever, an intra-erythrocytic protozoan which Smith named Pyrosoma bigeminum.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 1068
There are at least three genetically distinct small piroplasms from dogs
Kjemtrup AM et al. Int J Parasitol. 2000 Dec;30(14):1501-5.
... These results suggest that there are multiple small piroplasm species in dogs.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 933
Transfusion-acquired babesiosis and failure of antibiotic treatment
Smith RP et al. JAMA. 1986 Nov 21;256(19):2726-7.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 971
Transfusion-acquired, autochthonous human babesiosis in Japan ...
Transfusion-acquired, autochthonous human babesiosis in Japan: isolation of Babesia microti-like parasites with hu-RBC-SCID mice
Saito-Ito A et al. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Dec;38(12):4511-6.
Parasite DNA was prepared from blood samples of the patient and the mice, and the nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene (rDNA) was amplified and sequenced. Both DNA samples gave rise to identical sequences which showed the highest degree of homology (99.2%) with the Babesia microti rDNA ... only a single donor was found to be positive by both tests, and the parasite rDNA sequence from the donor coincided with that derived from the patient. The donor's serum exhibited a high antibody titer against the isolate from the patient, whereas it exhibited only a weak cross-reaction against B. microti strains isolated in the United States. PDF
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 1046
Transfusion-associated transmission of babesiosis in New York State
Linden JV et al. Transfusion. 2000 Mar;40(3):285-9.
In three incidents, babesiosis was diagnosed in five of eight patients given infected blood: two premature infants, an elderly patient with gastrointestinal bleeding, and two patients with thalassemia. Seroprevalence in blood donors on Shelter Island (Suffolk County, eastern Long Island), a highly endemic area, was 4.3 percent in May 1998. ... Infected donors lived in endemic areas and were asymptomatic with no history of tick bite.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 927
Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis .. first reported case caused by a WA1-type parasite
Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in Washington State: first reported case caused by a WA1-type parasite.
Herwaldt BL et al. J Infect Dis. 1997 May;175(5):1259-62.
A 76-year-old man with the first recognized case of transfusion-transmitted infection with the recently identified WA1-type Babesia parasite is described. The subject received multiple blood transfusions in 1994. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing of serum from 57 blood donors implicated a 34-year-old man (WA1 titer, 1:65,536) whose donation had been used for packed red cells. Isolates of the organisms that infected the recipient and the donor, both of whom were spleen-intact residents of Washington State, were obtained by hamster inoculation. The DNA sequence of a 536-bp region of the nuclear small subunit-rRNA gene of both isolates was identical to that of WA1 (isolated in 1991 from the index WA1 case-patient)
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 989
Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in Ontario: first reported case in Canada
Kain KC et al. CMAJ 2001 Jun 12;164(12):1721-3. PDF
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 954
Transmission of Babesia microti .. through four blood donations from the same donor ...
Transmission of Babesia microti in Minnesota through four blood donations from the same donor over a 6-month period.
Herwaldt BL et al. Transfusion. 2002 Sep;42(9):1154-8.
He likely became infected when bitten by ticks while camping in Minnesota in June 1999 and had donated blood four times thereafter. As demonstrated by PCR, he remained parasitemic for at least 10 months. Of the five other surviving recipients of cellular blood components from the implicated donor, three recipients (one for each of the three other donations) had become infected through either RBC or platelet transfusions.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 1037
Transverse myelitis secondary to coexistent Lyme disease and babesiosis
Oleson CV et al. J Spinal Cord Med. 2003 Summer;26(2):168-71.
CONCLUSION: The history, physical examination, imaging, and serologic studies were consistent with transverse myelitis related to Lyme disease and babesiosis. The severity and permanence of this patient's deficits were greater than those reported in the majority of previous cases of transverse myelitis due to Lyme disease alone, suggesting a possible role for coinfection with babesiosis.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 968
Treatment of babesiosis by red blood cell exchange in an HIV-positive, splenectomized patient
Machtinger L et al. J Clin Apheresis. 1993;8(2):78-81.
Although generally responsive to antibiotic therapy, several cases of severe babesiosis refractory to appropriate antibiotic therapy have been reported to respond promptly and dramatically to red blood cell (RBC) exchange transfusion. Although the role of HIV coinfection in babesiosis is uncertain, two previously reported cases raise a concern that it may predispose to a more severe clinical course. We report a third case of severe babesiosis in an HIV-positive splenectomized man, following travel to an endemic area. Antibiotic therapy, though initially effective, ultimately failed to prevent severe disease.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 1028
Two tick-borne diseases in one: a case report of concurrent babesiosis and Lyme disease ...
Two tick-borne diseases in one: a case report of concurrent babesiosis and Lyme disease in Ontario.
dos Santos CC, Kain KC. CMAJ. 1999 Jun 29;160(13):1851-3.
A 59-year-old man presented to The Toronto Hospital on July 27, 1997, because of fever. His travel history included a trip to Nantucket, Mass., 6 weeks before presentation and to Southeast Asia 7 months earlier. There was no history of rural travel on either trip. The past medical history was noncontributory. The patient had not undergone splenectomy, nor had he ever received a blood transfusion... .. He had tachycardia (130 beats/minute), splenomegaly and scattered petechiae. PDF
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 1013
Vertically transmitted babesiosis
New DL et al. J Pediatr. 1997 Jul;131(1 Pt 1):163-4.
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 935
Transplacental/perinatal babesiosis
Esernio-Jenssen D, Scimeca PG, Benach JL, Tenenbaum MJ. J Pediatr. 1987 Apr;110(4):570-2. PMID: 3559805
Date Added: 17.12.06 Visits: 930
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