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Links: Piroplasma & other "ringforms"
A case study of cytokine profiles in acute human babesiosis
Shaio MF, Lin PR. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998 Mar;58(3):335-7. "Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were highly elevated in the acute phase while normal levels of these mediators were observed one month after treatment. These results suggest that CD8+ T cells and NK cells may be involved in the host defense mechanisms against acute babesiosis."

Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 1677
A cluster of transfusion-associated babesiosis cases traced to a single asymptomatic donor
Dobroszycki J et al. JAMA. 1999 Mar 10;281(10):927-30. "Six persons who received Babesia microti-infected blood components from a donor. ..(1 adult, 1 child, and 4 neonates) were exposed to products from a single blood donation by an asymptomatic Babesia-infected donor. Three of the 6 exposed patients became parasitemic. Polymerase chain reaction testing, animal inoculation studies, and indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing were used to confirm the presence of Babesia microti in the donor's blood and to establish the presence of infection in 3 of the 6 recipients."
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 1747
A fatal case of babesiosis in Missouri: identification of another piroplasm that infects humans
Herwaldt B et al. Ann Intern Med. 1996 Apr 1;124(7):643-50. "Indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing showed that the patient's serum had strong reactivity with Babesia divergens, which causes babesiosis in cattle and humans in Europe, but that it had minimal reactivity with B. microti and WA1, which are the piroplasms previously known to cause zoonotic babesiosis in the United States. .. Immunoprecipitations showed that MO1 is more closely related to B. divergens than to B. canis (a canine parasite). "
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 1784
A study on the pathogenesis of human cerebral malaria and cerebral babesiosis
Aikawa M et al. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1992;87 Suppl 3:297-301. "Light microscopy revealed that cerebral microvessels of cerebral malaria patients were filled with a mixture of parasitized and unparasitized erythrocytes, with 94% of the vessels showing parasitized red blood cell (PRBC) sequestration. ..Electron microscopy demonstrated knobs on the membrane of PRBC that formed focal junctions with the capillary endothelium. .. Babesia bovis infected erythrocytes produce projections of the erythrocyte membrane that are similar to knobs. When brain tissue from B. bovis-infected cattle was examined, cerebral capillaries were packed with PRBC. Infected erythrocytes formed focal attachments with cerebral endothelial cells at the site of these knob-like projections. "
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 1696
A subtropical case of human babesiosis
Olmeda AS et al. Acta Trop. 1997 Sep 30;67(3):229-34. "This report constitutes the first well-documented case of symptomatic human babesiosis from a subtropical site, south of the 40th parallel. This paper describes the definitive identification of Babesia divergens infection in a splenectomized patient from the Canary Islands."
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 2025
Ability of azithromycin in combination with quinine for the elimination of babesial ...
Ability of azithromycin in combination with quinine for the elimination of babesial infection in humans.
Shih CM, Wang CC. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998 Oct;59(4):509-12. "Failure of elimination of the babesial infection was observed two weeks after treating with standard regimen of oral quinine plus intravenous clindamycin for a 10-day course of therapy. Azithromycin in place of clindamycin was administered for another 10-day course of therapy two months following initial treatment. Clearance of Babesia parasites was observed and verified by hamster inoculation. "
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 1603
Acute babesiosis caused by Babesia divergens in a resident of Kentucky
Beattie JF et al. N Engl J Med 2002 Aug 29;347(9):697-8. letter, color-picture
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 1609
Atovaquone and Azithromycin for the Treatment of Babesiosis
Krause PJ et al. N Engl J Med 2000 Nov 16;343(20):1454-1458 PDF
"A course of clindamycin and quinine is the standard treatment, but this regimen frequently causes adverse reactions and occasionally fails. .... Adverse effects were reported by 15 percent of the subjects who received atovaquone and azithromycin, as compared with 72 percent of those who received clindamycin and quinine (P<0.001). The most common adverse effects with atovaquone and azithromycin were diarrhea and rash (each in 8 percent of the subjects); with clindamycin and quinine the most common adverse effects were tinnitus (39 percent), diarrhea (33 percent), and decreased hearing (28 percent). ... CONCLUSIONS: For the treatment of babesiosis, a regimen of atovaquone and azithromycin is as effective as a regimen of clindamycin and quinine and is associated with fewer adverse reactions."
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 1697
Atovaquone in the treatment of Babesia microti infections in hamsters
Wittner M et al. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1996 Aug;55(2):219-22. "The close morphologic resemblance of B. microti to P. falciparum has led investigators to evaluate a variety of antimalarial drugs for antibabesial activity. While many of these drugs may have activity against both organisms, this is not always the case. For example, ciprofloxacin (14), chloroquine (15), and artemisin (16) all have antimalarial activity but no activity against babesia."
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 1621
Atypical lymphocytosis in babesiosis
Rosenbaum GS, Johnson DH, Cunha BA. Clin Infect Dis. 1995 Jan;20(1):203-4.
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 1555
Babesia Infections in Switzerland?
Mrs. Laurence Meer-Scherrer, MD describes 27 cases of babesiosis from Switzerland.
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 1441
Babesia gibsoni: chemotherapy in dogs
Fowler JL et al. Am J Vet Res. 1972 Jun;33(6):1109-14. Abstract: Certain drugs were tested for action against Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs. Chloroquine phosphate, primaquine phosphate, sodium arsenamide, and chlorguanide hydrochloride did not have an effect on the disease. Diminazene aceturate, niridazole, and metronidazole acted against the disease by reducing or eliminating mortality, increasing packed cell volume (PCV), and decreasing parasitaemia after treatment was given. The best response was obtained with diminazene aceturate. .. Excerpt: "Chlorguanide (= Proguanil*) hydrochloride proved to be completely ineffective against Babesia gibsoni at the dosage used.Two of the principal dogs did not survive the treatment period, and all others were dead within 15 days after the treatment series was completed."
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 1703
Babesiosis and Ehrlichiosis
Presentation by DVM Miguel Ramirez Ortega at the 1st Lymearduk conf. In Hull, UK 1-2 Sep. 2001
Spanish version Reference list
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 1418
Babesia bovis-stimulated macrophages express ....
Babesia bovis-stimulated macrophages express IL-1beta, IL-12, TNF alpha, and NO and inhibit parasite replication in vitro.
Shoda LK et al. Infect Immun. 2000 Sep;68(9):5139-45. PMID: 10948137 PDF
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 1650
Babesiosis and Ehrlichiosis: Potential Transfusion Complications (PDF)
Susan Wong, Ph.D. New York State Council on Human Blood and Transfusion Services. New York State Department of Health
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 1403
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