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Links: Spirochaetes
1915-Fantham - pictures of spirochetes undergoing granulation (PDF)
Pictures of spirochetes undergoing 'granulation' from Fantham HB. Spirochaeta bronchialis, Castellani. 1907, together with Remarks on the Spirochaetes of the Human Mouth. Annals Trop Med and Parasitol (1915) , ix, pp 391-412 + plate XXXIV.
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 708
Chronic Lyme Disease
Kenneth B. Liegner, M.D., P.C.
Internal & Critical Care Medicine Lyme Borreliosis & Related Disorders
8 Barnard Road
Armonk, New York 10504

"It can be difficult to distinguish Lyme disease from a number of other disorders which it can greatly resemble including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus, the chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, Lou Gehrig's disease, Alzheimer's disease and others.
Many persons who prove to have Lyme disease have no recollection of a tick attachment and estimates varying between 20 and 80% of those with the disease having recollection of the rash associated with the illness. Testing for Lyme disease can sometimes be quite clear cut and conclusive but false positive as well as false negative test results may occur. Thus the treating physician's judgment in making a clinical diagnosis is crucial. Over-reliance on imperfect tests can result in failure to treat true Lyme disease when it is present, which can have disastrous consequences for patients. Patients who test negative on standard tests but who really have the disease (the seronegative subset) may be most ill. There is ample precedent for variable expression of severity in infectious diseases depending on a patient's immune response. In leprosy, for example, patients having a vigorous immune response are able to contain the illness with resultant mild disease. Those with an ineffective immune response have more devastating leprosy, with deformity and loss of appendages.
For the most part, academic medical centers have restricted their studies to the seropositive subset only.
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 612
Kenneth B. Liegner. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Aug. 1993, p. 1961-1963
"Disease is very old and nothing about it has changed.
It is we who change as we learn to recognize what was formerly imperceptible."
-John Martin Charcot, De l'Expectation en Medecine
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 695
Intracellular Borrelia burgdorferi
- multiple articles on above subject
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 609
Functional Brain Imaging and Neuropsychological Testing in Lyme Disease
Fallon B et al. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1997;25(Suppl 1):S57–63.
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 704
Gastrointestinal Borreliosis
Short review on borrelia implicated in gastrointestinal infection.
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 629
Invasion and cytopathic killing of human lymphocytes by spirochetes causing Lyme disease.
Dorward DW, Fischer ER, Brooks DM. Clin Infect Dis 1997 Jul; 25 Suppl 1: S2-8. In vitro study.
Beautiful Electron Microscopic pictures of the spirochete attaching the lymfocyte with the tip, invading the lymfocyte and later lysis of the human B- and T- lymfocyte.
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 682
Keynote Address - The Complexity of Vector-borne Spirochetes (Borrelia spp)
Keynote Address - The Complexity of Vector-borne Spirochetes (Borrelia spp)
Willy Burgdorfer, PhD speech about Borrelia cyst form at the 12th International Conference on Lyme Disease and Other Spirochetal and Tick-Borne Disorders
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 701
Lyme Disease and the Clinical Spectrum of Antibiotic Responsive Chronic Meningoencephalomyelitides
Liegner Kb et al. J Spiro Tick Diseases 4(3):61-73, 1997. These 4 cases demonstrate: 1. Long term seronegativity for borrelia despite longterm symptomatology consistent with borreliosis 2. Repeatedly antibiotic responsive while relapses occurred when treatment was paused or decreased 3. Difficulty in discriminating chronic active Lyme borreliosis from MS (case 4) and lupus (case 1). 4. Severe worsening whenever steroid treatment is used in chronic active Lyme borreliosis. 5. Severe debilitating illness from borreliosis and death following vascular hemorrhage.
This was presented on MedScape in full text but later removed :(((
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 594
Lyme disease in the eighteenth century
Nicholas Summerton . BMJ 1995;311:1478 (2 December)
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 1012
Medscape - Lyme disease resource
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 840
very good reference collections
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 657
Metronidazole therapy in the treatment of Chronic Lyme disease (Conf. abstract)
Atkinson-Barr M, Padgett V, Horowitz R., 12th Int. Scient. Conf. Tick borne diseases, April 1999, New York City, USA
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 818
Microbial Lipopeptides Induce the Production of IL-17 in Th Cells
Infante-Duarte C et al. J Immunol 2000 Dec 1;165(11):6107-6115. PMID: 11086043
"Thus, IL-17, which has been found in inflammatory lesions (38-41), is induced by microbial stimuli and coexpressed with other proinflammatory cytokines. The failure to down-regulate microbe-induced expression of IL-17 could therefore be one link between infection and autoimmunity. ... IL-17 is coexpressed with TNF-a and GM-CSF, but not with type 1 or 2 cytokines. ... IL-17 does not exert an obvious effect on Th-phenotype development. ... There is ample evidence for IL-17 as a mediator of inflammation in humans. Several studies have detected IL-17-expressing human T cells in inflammatory lesions. Rheumatoid arthritis is the best-characterized example: IL-17 is expressed, secreted, and functional in rheumatoid synovia (38, 39, 55) but not in osteoarthritic synovia (38, 39). ... IL-17 mRNA-expressing cells were found in higher numbers during clinical exacerbations in patients with multiple sclerosis compared with remission, and IL-17 mRNA-expressing MNC were found more frequently in cerebrospinal fluid as compared with peripheral blood in these patients (40). .."
Mentions Borrelia burgdorferiPDF
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 886
Microbiological diagnosis of Lyme Borreliosis (Europe)
(B. Wilske, L. Zöller, V. Brade, H. Eiffert, U.B. Göbel, G. Stanek)
Date Added: 16.12.06 Visits: 675
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