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Links: Spirochaetes
Susceptibility of mobile and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi to tinidazole. (PubMed)
An in vitro study of the susceptibility of mobile and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi to tinidazole.
Brorson O, Brorson SH. Int Microbiol. 2004 Jun;7(2):139-42. When cysts were exposed to TZ, both the spirochetal structures and core structures inside the cysts dissolved, and the production of blebs was significantly reduced.
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 1031
Antibodies .. in patients with PCR- or culture-proven late Lyme borreliosis
Antibodies against Whole Sonicated Borrelia burgdorferi Spirochetes, 41-Kilodalton Flagellin, and P39 Protein in Patients with PCR- or Culture-Proven Late Lyme Borreliosis.
Oksi et al. J Clin Microbiol 1995 Sep; 33(9): 2260-4.

All 41 pts. had symptoms of LB for at least 3 months (78.0% > 6 months, 53.7% > 1 year)
12 pos. on culture, 39 pos. PCR for Bb (10 pos. on both)
3 different serology tests were done!
19 had only weekly positive or borderline antibody levels and 7 (17%) were SERONEGATIVE on ALL 3 tests!
Result of FL-ELISA (DAKO, Denmark): 6 culture pos. (of 12 = 50%) + 18 PCR pos. = 24 of 41 (58%) of these LATE LB symptomatic patients were SERONEGATIVE!
Conclusion: spare the money for doing serology in chronic / late Lyme borreliosis infection - the sensibility is at level of throwing a coin!
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 783
Basic and Clinical Approaches to Lyme Disease: A Lyme Disease Foundation Symposium
Clinical Infectious Diseases 1997;25(Suppl 1):S1
Multiple authors. Multiple titles.
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 609
Borrelia & TMJ pain references
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 748
Borrelia burgdorferi Spirochetes Induce Mast Cell Activation and Cytokine Release.
Talkington J, Nickell SP. Infect Immun 1999 Mar;67(3):1107-1115. PMID: 10024550
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 919
Borrelia burgdorferi ... culture and PCR in clinical relapse of disseminated LB (PubMed).
Borrelia burgdorferi detected by culture and PCR in clinical relapse of disseminated Lyme borreliosis.
Oksi J et al., Ann Med 1999 Jun;31(3):225-32
(link to full text was http://www.annmed.org/duo/annmed.check_login?fname=1999_31_3_225-32.html - link does not work anymore?)
A total of 165 patients with disseminated Lyme borreliosis (diagnosed in 1990-94, all seropositive except one culture-positive patient) were followed after antibiotic treatment, and 32 of them were regarded as having a clinically defined treatment failure.
Of the 165 patients, 136 were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) during the follow-up. PCR was positive from the plasma of 14 patients 0-30 months after discontinuation of the treatment, and 12 of these patients had a clinical relapse. In addition, Borrelia burgdorferi was cultured from the blood of three patients during the follow-up. All three patients belonged to the group with relapse, and two of them were also PCR positive.
This report focuses on the 13 patients with clinical relapse and culture or PCR positivity.
Eight of the patients had culture or PCR-proven initial diagnosis, the diagnosis of the remaining five patients was based on positive serology only.
All 13 patients were primarily treated for more than 3 months with intravenous and/or oral antibiotics (11 of them received intravenous ceftriaxone, nine for 2 weeks, one for 3 weeks and one for 7 weeks, followed by oral antibiotics). The treatment caused only temporary relief in the symptoms of the patients. All but one of them had negative PCR results immediately after the first treatment. The patients were retreated usually with intravenous ceftriaxone for 4-6 weeks. None of them was PCR positive after the retreatment. The response to retreatment was considered good in nine patients.
We conclude that the treatment of Lyme borreliosis with appropriate antibiotics for even more than 3 months may not always eradicate the spirochete.
By using PCR, it is possible to avoid unnecessary retreatment of patients with 'post-Lyme syndrome' and those with 'serological scars' remaining detectable for months or years after infection.
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 804
Borreliosis - Persistent infection
List of references
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 646
Borreliosis - Seronegative
List of references
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 607
Brain Imaging in Lyme borreliosis
(Brian Fallon)
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 621
Carbamazepine in the treatment of Lyme disease-induced hyperacusis
Nields JA, Fallon BA, Jastreboff PJ. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999 Winter;11(1):97-9.
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 802
Chronic Persistent Lyme Borreliosis: PCR Evidence ...
Chronic Persistent Lyme Borreliosis: PCR Evidence of Chronic Infection Despite Extended Antibiotic Therapy—A Retrospective Review
by Richard Horowitz
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 585
Detection of Borrelia DNA in Circulating Monocytes as Evidence of Persistent Lyme Disease
Wang P, Gartenhaus R, Sood SK, DeVoti J, Singer C, Dorante G, Hilton E. Detection of Borrelia DNA in Circulating Monocytes as Evidence of Persistent Lyme Disease. J Spiro Tick Diseases 7(1):16-19, 2000.
PCR for Bb positive seronegative pt. - diagn. 3 years after debut of symptoms!
This article was presented by, but later removed from MedScape :((( ... but somebody saved it elsewhere :)))

Abstract: We report the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in circulating monocytes in a 31-year-old female who presented with a flu-like syndrome followed by neurological abnormalities after a trip to Southampton, Long Island, New York. ELISA and Western blot were negative. Lymphocyte proliferation assay to Borrelia burgdorferi was positive. Borrelia burgdorferi DNA was detected in circulating monocytes using a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Treatment with parenteral ceftriaxone resulted in clinical improvement and repeat PCR on monocytes was negative. The use of detecting DNAby PCR from circulating monocytes may be useful in evaluating seronegative patients with a high suspicion of Lyme disease.
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 642
Effects of penicillin, ceftriaxone, and doxycycline on morphology of Borrelia burgdorferi.
Kersten A, Poitschek C, Rauch S, Aberer E. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1995 May; 39(5): 1127-33.
...The morhological alteration developed gradually; initially, after 17 hours, granules of up to 0.8 ,um adhereing to the end and/or midlle regions of the spirochete developed in cultures incubated with concentrations at then MIC90 or greater. ...
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 758
Entry of Borrelia burgdorferi into macrophages is end-on and leads to degradation in lysosomes.
Montgomery RR, Malawista SE. Infect Immun 1996 Jul; 64(7): 2867-72. Malawista: "We have demonstrated that spirochetes enter macrophages end on, are quickly localized in endosomes and lysosomes, and are degraded in the lysosomes. The clarification of initial events in Bb ingestion by macrophages extends our previous work to the ultrastructural level (27) but does not yet explain the occasionally observed cell-associated persistence." [This is discussed and an answer implied in The Biology of Parasitic Spirochetes, 1976.]
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 780
Eucaryotic cells protect Borrelia burgdorferi from the action of penicillin and ceftriaxone
Eucaryotic cells protect Borrelia burgdorferi from the action of penicillin and ceftriaxone but not .. doxycycline and erythromy
Brouqui P, Badiaga S, Raoult D. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1996 Jun; 40(6): 1552-4. PMID: 8726038
Date Added: 15.12.06 Visits: 813
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